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**Causes of Settlement:**
– Inconsistency of moisture in soil
– Soil expansion and contraction
– Naturally occurring soil consolidation
Soil erosion
– Settlement on filled-in land

**Seismic Activity as a Cause:**
– Common in earthquake-prone countries
– Impact on concrete surfaces and footings
– Notable in Japan, New Zealand, Turkey, and the United States

**Concrete Leveling Technologies:**
– **Slabjacking Technology:**
– Lifts sunken concrete slabs
– Uses substances like mud or polyurethane foam
– Involves drilling access holes
– Benefits include cost-effectiveness and timeliness
– Limitations include concrete condition and possible resettlement

– **Mudjacking Process:**
– Uses soil or sand blend mixture
– Injection under concrete slabs
– Benefits include controlled lifting and eco-friendliness
– Disadvantages include shorter warranty periods and cleanup needs
– Slower process compared to foam leveling

– **Limestone Grout Leveling:**
– Uses pulverized limestone and water
– Creates a slurry pumped beneath the slab
– Low-pressure method for precise lift
– High compressive strength of the slurry
– Creates a solid stone foundation for leveled concrete

**Expanding Structural Foam Leveling:**
– Benefits:
– Meets compressive strength requirements for supporting highway slabs
– Longer warranty periods with Polyurethane Foam
– Requires less clean up than Mudjacking or Limestone Grout Leveling
– Smaller holes required
– Mobile units can reach areas inaccessible to truck-based equipment
– Advantages of Polyurethane Foam:
– Does not retain moisture
– Provides longer warranty periods for consumers
– Requires less clean up compared to other methods
– Can reach inaccessible areas with mobile units
– Disadvantages:
– Requires specially trained technicians for proper installation
– Greater technical skills needed for operations and maintenance of equipment
– Environmental concerns due to polyurethane being a plastic
– Potential toxicity of Structural Foam Dust

**Environmental Impact of Structural Foam Leveling:**
– Derived from crude oil, creating negative environmental impact
– Shipped to refineries, manufacturing plants, and job sites, increasing CO2 output
– Burning of fuel during transportation processes
– Intense heat can cause self-combustion and flammability of polyurethane
– Potential toxicity of Structural Foam Dust impacting the environment

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