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Foot

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**Anatomy of the Foot:**
– The human foot contains 26 bones, 33 joints, and over a hundred muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
– Foot is subdivided into hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot.
– Hindfoot consists of talus and calcaneus, midfoot includes cuboid, navicular, and three cuneiform bones, and forefoot composed of five toes and metatarsus bones.
– Foot bones include tibia, fibula, talus, calcaneus, cuneiformes, cuboid, navicular, metatarsal bones, and phalanges.
– The foot has two longitudinal arches and a transverse arch maintained by foot bones, ligaments, and muscles.
– Excessive strain can lead to fallen arches or flat feet.

**Muscles of the Foot:**
– Foot muscles are classified into extrinsic and intrinsic muscles.
– Extrinsic muscles originate on the lower leg and attach to foot bones.
– Intrinsic muscles include extensor digitorum brevis, extensor hallucis brevis, and abductor hallucis, among others.
– Intrinsic muscles act on the top and sole of the foot, supporting the foot arch and plantar flexing the digits.
– Tendon anatomy in the foot includes various muscles like long flexors, abductor hallucis, flexor hallucis brevis, and adductor hallucis.

**Clinical Significance and Disorders:**
– Feet are prone to infections and injuries like athlete’s foot and bunions.
– Genetic disorders can affect foot shape and function.
– Improper footwear can affect foot alignment and movement.
– Podiatrists specialize in foot treatment.
– Various fractures like Lisfranc, Jones, March, calcaneal, and cuneiform fractures can occur.

**Pronation and Foot Function:**
– Pronation is a rotational movement of the foot with types like neutral, overpronation, and underpronation.
– Neutral pronation evenly distributes weight across the foot.
– Overpronation results in uneven weight distribution and inefficient shock absorption.
– Underpronation leads to uneven weight distribution towards the lateral side of the foot.

**Cultural and Metaphorical References:**
– Humans wear shoes for protection outdoors and some cultures find it disrespectful to wear shoes indoors.
– Foot fetishism is a common sexual fetish.
– Various idioms and cultural references related to the foot in language and society.
– Historical and metaphorical usage of ‘foot’ as a unit of measure, in music, and in idioms.
– Comparative foot morphology in animals and their locomotion.

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