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**1. Types of Pumps:**

– Mechanical pumps can be submerged or external.
– Pumps classified by displacement method into various types.
– Basic pump types include positive-displacement, centrifugal, and axial-flow pumps.
– Centrifugal pumps change fluid flow direction by 90 degrees over an impeller.
– Axial-flow pumps maintain the same flow direction.

**2. Positive-Displacement Pumps:**

– Positive-displacement pumps displace a fixed volume of fluid.
– Some pumps use expanding and decreasing cavities for operation.
– Can theoretically maintain constant flow at a given speed.
– Require relief valves to prevent damage against closed discharge valves.
– Classified into rotary, reciprocating, and linear types.

**3. Rotary Positive-Displacement Pumps:**

– Rotary pumps create vacuum to draw in liquid.
– Efficient for handling viscous fluids with higher flow rates.
– Types include gear pumps, screw pumps, and rotary vane pumps.
– Hollow disc pumps suitable for high-pressure and viscous fluids.
– Peristaltic pumps popular for dispensing food and medicine.

**4. Reciprocating Positive-Displacement Pumps:**

– Reciprocating pumps use pistons or membranes to move fluids.
– Valves control fluid direction.
– Can be simplex, duplex, or triplex in design.
– Operate manually, by air/steam, or engine-driven.
– Commonly used for highly viscous fluids like concrete.

**5. Pump Efficiency and Performance:**

– Pump efficiency is the ratio of power imparted on fluid to power supplied to drive the pump.
– Efficiency varies with discharge and operating head.
– Pump performance data is crucial for pump selection.
– Pump efficiencies decrease over time due to wear.
– Matching head loss-flow characteristic with pump is vital for efficiency.

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