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Soil erosion

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**Soil Erosion Processes:**
– Rainfall and surface runoff:
– Splash erosion
– Sheet erosion
– Rill erosion
– Gully erosion
– Rivers and streams:
– Valley stream erosion
– Bank erosion
– Thermal erosion
– Erosion during floods
– Wind erosion:
– Deflation processes
– Abrasion effects
– Prevention and remediation practices:
– Conservation tillage
– Cover crops
– Terracing
– Windbreaks
– Land management practices

**Mass Movement Overview:**
– Downward and outward movement of rock and sediments
– Gravity as the main force
– Crucial part of the erosional process
– Initial stage in the breakdown and transport of weathered materials
– Transfer of material from higher to lower elevations

**Types of Mass Movement:**
– Continuous processes on all slopes
– Varying speeds of movement
– Potential for disastrous outcomes
– Landslides as a common term for down-slope movements
– Detailed classifications of landslides based on mechanisms

**Factors Influencing Mass Movement:**
– Slope gradient
– Rock and soil type
Water content
– Vegetation cover
– Human activities

**Effects and Mitigation of Mass Movement:**
Property damage
– Loss of life
– Transportation disruption
– Landscape alterations
– Ecosystem impacts
– Prevention and mitigation methods:
Engineering structures
– Vegetation management
Drainage systems
– Monitoring and early warning systems
– Land-use planning and zoning regulations

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