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**Definitions of Waste**:
– Waste can be a resource for another person.
– Waste generation is a physical and psychological process.
– Basel Convention defines waste as substances to be disposed of.
– UNSD describes waste as materials without further use.
– EU defines waste as objects to be discarded.
– Waste is substances disposed of by national law according to the United Nations Environment Program.
– Waste includes materials not prime products and arises from various human activities according to the United Nations Statistics Division.
– Waste Framework Directive by the European Union defines waste as discarded objects.

**Types of Waste**:
– **Municipal Waste**:
– OECD defines municipal solid waste (MSW) as waste treated by municipalities.
– In 2018, 292.4 tons of MSW were generated in the US.
– Approximately 69 million tons of MSW were recycled.
– **Household and Commercial Waste**:
– Household waste includes product packaging, food scraps, etc.
– Americans throw away an estimated 81.5 pounds of clothes annually.
– Commercial waste is generated by businesses.
– **Construction and Demolition Waste**:
– C&D debris includes steel, wood products, concrete, etc.
– In 2018, the US generated around 600 million tons of C&D waste.
– **Hazardous Waste**:
– Hazardous waste poses risks to human health and the environment.
– Regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).
– **Radioactive Waste**:
– Produced by industries involving radioactive materials.
– Proper handling of radioactive waste is crucial.

**Waste Management Regulations**:
– Basel Convention regulates hazardous waste disposal and controls transboundary movements.
– EU regulations focus on proper waste disposal and reducing waste generation.
– RCRA ensures proper handling and disposal of hazardous waste.
– Regulatory agencies like NRC and DOE monitor and regulate radioactive waste.
– EPA, DOT, and DOI play roles in regulating, packaging, and transporting waste materials.

**Impact and Costs of Waste**:
– Environmental costs include toxic waste contamination and greenhouse gas emissions.
– Social costs involve marginalized groups bearing environmental burdens and transboundary waste movement.
– Economic costs relate to high waste management costs and the impact on the informal waste sector.
– Waste affects communities globally, with developing countries facing contaminated water and landfills.
– Improper waste management leads to health issues and environmental degradation.

**Waste Management Strategies and Solutions**:
– Circular economy principles and the 7R approach guide effective waste management.
– Resource recovery aims to create valuable products from waste and aligns with circular economy principles.
– Optimal waste management practices aim to minimize waste creation and promote sustainable product design.
– Wastewater treatment facilities remove contaminants from water, addressing water scarcity and health issues.
– Integrated techno-economic mechanisms and efficient disposal facilities are essential for sustainable waste management.

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