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**Floor Structures and Coverings:**
– Special floor structures include balconies, floating floors, glass floors, nightingale floors, and raised floors.
– Various materials like carpet, wood, linoleum, vinyl, ceramic tile, and stone are used for floor coverings.
– Factors influencing choice include cost, endurance, noise insulation, and comfort.
– Some floors are not suitable below ground level due to moisture.
– Special features like floor medallions and gratings add ornamentation.

**Subfloor Construction:**
– Subfloors are built using beams, joists, or prefabricated hollow core slabs.
– Materials like moisture-resistant plywood or composite sheeting are common for subfloor construction.
– Underlayment layers are added for dispersing forces and providing strength.
– High-quality construction may involve three layers of subflooring.
– Subfloors can accommodate underfloor heating or forced air ducts.

**Ground and Upper Floor Construction:**
– Ground floors can be earthen or concrete slabs, with solid ground floors common in heated interior spaces.
– Upper floors in wood-frame homes have joists centered no more than 16 inches apart.
– Stone floors require closely spaced joists and heavy crossbeams for long spans.
– Subfloors of plywood or waferboard are laid over the joists, following building codes.
– Concrete subfloors are popular for rooms with ceramic tile flooring.

**Utilities and Maintenance:**
– Services like air conditioning and plumbing are placed under the floor or above the ceiling.
– Utilities in joist-supported floors are run through small holes in the joists.
– Ducts for air conditioning are typically near the plenum or from underneath.
– Various cleaning methods are essential for hygiene and floor protection.
– Incorrect cleaning methods can damage the floor surface.

**Floor Issues and Innovations:**
– Problems like squeaking in wood floors and slip hazards from chemical sealers are common.
– Gym floor covers can protect flooring, and slip resistance testing is crucial for safety.
– Innovations include self-cleaning and sensing floors.
– References like the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing and Wood Frame House Construction provide valuable data.
– External links offer additional information on floor-related topics.

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