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**Definitions and Concepts of Sustainability:**
– Sustainability is a normative concept based on values and desires.
– The Brundtland Report defines sustainable development as meeting present needs without compromising future generations’ ability to meet their own needs.
– Sustainability connects with resilience, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability.
– Choices matter in sustainability, emphasizing goals over means.
– Scale, time, and place are crucial in sustainability.
– Sustainability involves maintaining or improving desirable conditions over the long term.
– Sustainability is a form of intergenerational ethics ensuring future opportunities.
– Meeting current needs without compromising future generations is key to sustainability.
– Sustainability encompasses environmental, social, and economic resources.
– The Oxford Dictionary defines sustainability as maintaining processes without depleting natural resources.

**Historical Evolution of Sustainability:**
– Sustainability, derived from ‘sustinere,’ means the ability to continue over time.
– Initially, sustainability focused on environmental preservation for future reliance.
– The concept of sustainability dates back to Hans Carl von Carlowitz and sustainable forest management.
– Sustainability evolved from preserving forests to broader environmental resource preservation.
– Ernst Basler’s 1972 book marked the shift towards sustainability for future generations.

**Relationship Between Sustainability and Sustainable Development:**
– Sustainability and sustainable development are closely related terms.
– Both are linked with the three dimensions of sustainability concept.
– Sustainability is a general concept, while sustainable development can be a policy.
– Sustainable development aims for human development goals and natural resource sustainability.
– Sustainable development focuses on economic, social, and environmental protection.

**Dimensions of Sustainability:**
– Three dimensions of sustainability are environmental, social, and economic.
– Scholars refer to these dimensions as pillars, components, or goals interchangeably.
– The Brundtland Report emphasized the inseparable nature of environment and development.
– The Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 highlighted the importance of monitoring progress across dimensions.
– Agenda 2030 introduced 17 Sustainable Development Goals balancing economic, social, and environmental aspects.

**Environmental Sustainability and Economic Sustainability:**
– Environmental dimension is central to sustainability, evolving from 1960s concern for pollution.
– Awareness of global environmental issues increased in the 20th century.
– Historical events like DDT and CFCs highlighted global environmental impacts.
Climate change discussions emerged in the late 20th century.
– UN conferences emphasized protecting natural resources and habitats for future generations.
– Economic sustainability is controversial due to different interpretations of sustainable development.
– Economic development can reduce hunger and energy poverty.
– Challenge is to expand economic activities while reducing environmental impact.

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